Citing security concerns, Trump held back some of the documents.
Only 24 percent thought Oswald had acted alone. Another poll taken in Dallas during the same week found 66 percent of respondents believing that there had been a plot. There were no JFK conspiracy theories in print at that time. Oliver Stone was in high school. Since , five tenured academic historians have published books on JFK's assassination. Four of the five concluded that a conspiracy was behind the 35th president's murder. Kennedy , concluded that Kennedy was killed in plot involving disgruntled CIA operatives and organized crime figures. In his book about photographic evidence, The Zapruder Film: Reframing JFK's Assassination , David Wrone of the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point argued that the famous amateur film footage of the assassination proves that Kennedy was hit by gunfire from two different directions.
Wrone did not advocate a theory of who was responsible. Kennedy, No one high-up in the U.
Would we have landed on the Moon on July 20, , if JFK had lived?
In fact, many senior U. Kennedy's successor, Lyndon Johnson, publicly endorsed the Warren Commissions conclusion that Oswald acted alone. The president's brother Robert and widow Jacqueline also believed that he had been killed by political enemies, according to historians Aleksandr Fursenko and Tim Naftali. Walton carried a message from RFK and Jackie for their friend, Georgi Bolshakov, a Russian diplomat who had served as a back-channel link between the White House and the Kremlin during the October crisis: RFK and Jackie wanted the Soviet leadership to know that "despite Oswald's connections to the communist world, the Kennedys believed that the president was felled by domestic opponents.
In the executive branch, Joseph Califano, the General Counsel of Army in and later Secretary of Health Education and Welfare, concluded that Kennedy had been killed by a conspiracy.
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Nixon wasn't interested. Suspicion persisted in the upper echelons of the U. Fletcher Prouty , chief of Pentagon special operations in and later an adviser to Stone , believed that there had been a plot. Hill, Ready, and Bennett, by their own statements to the Warren Commission, had stayed until close to three A. Ready died in At press time, vanityFair.
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By way of contrast, the fourth car in the motorcade that day, containing Vice President Johnson and his wife, was guarded by other agents, including Rufus Youngblood. Youngblood had not joined the others at the Press Club and the Cellar the previous evening.
And at the sound of the first shot, Youngblood, in line with his Secret Service training, pushed Johnson to the floor of the car and covered him with his own body. A week after the events in Dallas, President Lyndon Johnson ordered the first official investigation of the assassination. Its chairman: Earl Warren, the chief justice of the Supreme Court, who had had a distinguished career as the governor of California.
The Warren court, during his 15 years presiding, would hear many pivotal cases, including the landmark civil-rights decision affirming Brown v. Board of Education, in And with his reputation established and mindful of the political thicket that would surround an investigation into the assassination, Warren had to be bullied by the new president into accepting the post. Three days after taking the job, Warren was outraged to learn that a half dozen Secret Service agents had been out on the town past midnight.
Agent who jumped on JFK's limo recounts fateful moments
The revelation came not from depositions, but from a Drew Pearson radio report on November 30, , followed up by his December 2 column in the Washington Post. That column, now long forgotten, was a bombshell at the time, but one that never exploded. The Warren Commission duly questioned the Secret Service members about their activities the night before the assassination, and found that, yes, some had been drinking. But in the s the pastime of drinking heavily with peers or colleagues was considered acceptable behavior in many circles. Indeed, the agents themselves were already devastated enough by the death of the president, whom most of them had revered.
And although some of the men had broken the rules, many involved with the commission were eager to protect them from going down in history as the men who may have made mistakes on that fateful day. It was the president who wanted to ride in an open car. It was the president who insisted on going to Dallas, a staunchly conservative stronghold, even though a fellow Democrat, Adlai Stevenson, then—U.
Or the president might have even been spared the fatal bullet. But it was not to be. Photos and film footage show that Greer, instead, turning to look at his passengers, seemed to have no idea what was going on. Instead, Greer slowed down, allowing the next shots to be fired at an easier target. Later, Greer said that he had merely been following Secret Service protocol, which mandated that while continuing to focus on driving, he should, at the first sign of trouble, await instructions from his fellow agent—in this case, Roy Kellerman, sitting next to him in the passenger seat of the limousine.
Today, defensive-driving techniques in similar situations usually advise swerving or speeding up. It would later become clear, however, that Greer, from the first, understood his culpability. Kennedy, oh my God, oh my God. Oh Mrs. His sense of guilt would be echoed by Clint Hill, who in a TV interview with newsman Mike Wallace, would break down in tears.
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If one examines the famous and horrific film sequence of the assassination—26 seconds of 8mm. Kellerman and Greer were in a position to take swift evasive action, and for five terrible seconds they were immobilized. Kellerman, who was riding in the passenger seat of the presidential limousine, also behaved oddly after the first shot rang out. Instead of moving back to protect his passengers, he stayed in the front, relaying radio messages to Greer, who was sitting a foot away, on his left.
Lee Rankin continued on, firmly. Even though drinking was a firing offense, according to the manual, Rowley had fired no one. He had thought about punishment, he admitted. Rowley gave a few excuses. Sorrels, the special agent in charge of the Dallas office, canvassed everyone they could find who was at the Hotel Texas, the Fort Worth Press Club, or the Cellar that night, including the owner and a manager of the coffee house, and a reporter who had been hanging out with the agents. Their conclusions? Letter after letter states that no one that night was intoxicated. Letter after letter repeats that of the nine Secret Service agents at the Press Club and the Cellar, only three were due to report for the eight A.
Numerous times in the report, respondents state that the Cellar was a dry club. Every agent on duty in Fort Worth and in Dallas was asked to write an account of his whereabouts and activities in the early morning hours of November These letters read like choirboy testimonials. The agents say they went to the Press Club because they were hungry; none confesses to more than two or three drinks. At the Cellar, the agents say, they drank fruit juice—mostly grapefruit juice. They may well have had. In the letters he wrote in , he was certain that none of the Secret Service agents in his establishment had been drinking.
They were drinking pure Everclear. In addition, the waitresses at the Cellar—a late-night drawing card for the club—were scantily clad.
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Which leads you to wonder: What if there had been someone on both sides of the limo, particularly the right side? And it was terribly hot. Just blinding all of us. But there were rows and rows of people behind me. I was out in the middle of the street. Bill Newman and his wife, Gayle, had taken their sons, 4 and 2 years old, to Love Field, where they found they all could not get close enough to see the Kennedys. The parade route had been publicized in the paper and so we knew the parade route so we jumped in our car and tried to get ahead of the parade.
Jacqueline Kennedy, describing the conversation as the limo headed toward Dealey Plaza:. Everything was really slow then. You could hear the cheering of the crowd. I got out about a half-hour earlier to get a good spot to shoot some pictures. And I found a spot, one of these concrete blocks they have down near that park, near the underpass.
And I got on top there, there was another girl from my office, she was right behind me. As he was coming toward us, he was not against the curb lane. As we all know, he was in the center lane. And as he was coming towards us, probably 75 or feet from us, the first two shots rang out.
So I was looking to the left. And my husband never made any sound. So I turned to the right. And all I remember is seeing my husband, he had this sort of quizzical look on his face, and his hand was up, it must have been his left hand. And just as I turned and looked at him, I could see a piece of his skull and I remember it was flesh colored. I remember thinking he just looked as if he had a slight headache. And I just remember seeing that.
No blood or anything.